It would at the very least be a criminal misuse of the powers and funds under the Government's Contest strategy, and at worst a conspiracy to pervert the course of justice. In May , Susan J. Crawford , the official overseeing prosecutions before the Guantanamo military commissions , declined to refer for trial the case of Mohammed al-Qahtani because she said, "we tortured [him]. On 28 October , Guantanamo military judge Stephen R. Henley ruled that the government cannot use statements made as a result of torture in the military commission case against Afghan national Mohammed Jawad.
The judge held that Jawad's alleged confession to throwing a grenade at two U. The government had previously told the judge that Jawad's alleged confession while in Afghan custody was central to the case against him. Hina Shamsi, staff attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union National Security Project stated: "We welcome the judge's decision that death threats constitute torture and that evidence obtained as a result must be excluded from trial.
Unfortunately, evidence obtained through torture and coercion is pervasive in military commission cases that, by design, disregard the most fundamental due process rights, and no single decision can cure that. Kaplan ruled evidence obtained under coercion inadmissible. Torture has been criticized on humanitarian and moral grounds, on the grounds that evidence extracted by torture is unreliable, and because torture corrupts institutions that tolerate it.
Organizations like Amnesty International argue that the universal legal prohibition is based on a universal philosophical consensus that torture and ill-treatment are repugnant, abhorrent, and immoral. Some people, such as Alan M. Dershowitz and Mirko Bagaric , have argued the need for information outweighs the moral and ethical arguments against torture. Geoffrey D. Miller , the American commander in charge of detentions and interrogations, stated " a rapport-based interrogation that recognizes respect and dignity, and having very well-trained interrogators, is the basis by which you develop intelligence rapidly and increase the validity of that intelligence.
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The ticking time bomb scenario , a thought experiment , asks what to do to a captured terrorist who has placed a nuclear bomb in a populated area. If the terrorist is tortured, he may explain how to defuse the bomb. The scenario asks if it is ethical to torture the terrorist. A BBC poll held in 25 nations gauged support for each of the following positions: . Often this lessened rejection is found in countries severely and frequently threatened by terrorist attacks. Within nations there is a clear divide between the positions of members of different ethnic groups, religions, and political affiliations, sometimes reflecting distinctions between groups considering themselves threatened or victimized by terror acts and those from the alleged perpetrator groups.
Differences in general political views also can matter. In practice, so-called "enhanced interrogation" techniques were employed by the CIA in situations that did not involve the "ticking time bomb" scenario that has been the subject of opinion polls and public debate. In April a former senior U. On 14 February , in an appearance on ABC 's This Week , Vice-President Dick Cheney reiterated his support of waterboarding and " enhanced interrogation " techniques for captured terrorist suspects, saying, "I was and remain a strong proponent of our enhanced interrogation program.
Pressed by the BBC in on his personal view of waterboarding, Presidential Advisor Karl Rove said: "I'm proud that we kept the world safer than it was, by the use of these techniques. A month investigation by the Guardian and BBC Arabic, published on March , disclosed that "the US sent a veteran of the dirty wars in Central America to oversee Iraqi commando units involved in acts of torture during the American-led occupation.
These American citizens could theoretically be tried by the International Criminal Court even though the US is not a signatory. But it would have to be referred by the UN security council and, given that the US has a veto on the council, this hypothesis is very improbable. There is a strong utilitarian argument against torture; namely, that it is ineffective. Information supporting the ineffectiveness of torture goes back centuries.
For example, during witch trials torture was routinely used to try to force subjects to admit their guilt and to identify other witches. It was found that subjects would make up stories if it meant the torture would cease. There is no scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness. On the other hand, some have pointed to some specific cases where torture has elicited true information. A famous example of rejection of the use of torture was cited by the Argentine National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons in whose report, Italian general Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa was reputed to have said in connection with the investigation of the disappearance of prime minister Aldo Moro , "Italy can survive the loss of Aldo Moro.
It would not survive the introduction of torture. Before the emergence of modern policing, torture was an important aspect of policing and the use of it was openly sanctioned and acknowledged by the authority. In the 21st century, even when states sanction their interrogation methods, torturers often work outside the law.
For this reason, some prefer methods that, while unpleasant, leave victims alive and unmarked. A victim with no visible damage may lack credibility when telling tales of torture, whereas a person missing fingernails or eyes can easily prove claims of torture. Mental torture, however can leave scars just as deep and long-lasting as physical torture. However the most common and prevalent form of torture worldwide in both developed and under-developed countries is beating.
Psychological torture uses non-physical methods that cause psychological suffering. Its effects are not immediately apparent unless they alter the behavior of the tortured person. Since there is no international political consensus on what constitutes psychological torture, it is often overlooked, denied, and referred to by different names. Psychological torture is less well known than physical torture and tends to be subtle and much easier to conceal.
In practice the distinctions between physical and psychological torture are often blurred. In contrast, psychological torture is directed at the psyche with calculated violations of psychological needs, along with deep damage to psychological structures and the breakage of beliefs underpinning normal sanity. Torturers often inflict both types of torture in combination to compound the associated effects. Psychological torture also includes deliberate use of extreme stressors and situations such as mock execution , shunning , violation of deep-seated social or sexual norms and taboos , or extended solitary confinement.
Because psychological torture needs no physical violence to be effective, it is possible to induce severe psychological pain, suffering, and trauma with no externally visible effects. Rape and other forms of sexual abuse are often used as methods of torture for interrogative or punitive purposes. In medical torture , medical practitioners use torture to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments that enhance torture, or act as torturers in their own right. In recent years, however, there has been a push to end medical complicity in torture through both international and state-based legal strategies, as well as litigations against individual physicians.
Pharmacological torture is the use of drugs to produce psychological or physical pain or discomfort. Tickle torture is an unusual form of torture which nevertheless has been documented, and can be both physically and psychologically painful. Torture murder involves torture to the point of murder. Murderers might also torture their victims to death for sadistic reasons.
Some terrorist groups torture—typically commencing with the forcible extraction of all ten fingernails, all ten toenails, and all thirty-two teeth—before executing the victim by such barbaric techniques as slow decapitation via butcher knife. The consequences of torture reach far beyond immediate pain. Many victims suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , which includes symptoms such as flashbacks or intrusive thoughts , severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, depression and memory lapses.
Torture victims often feel guilt and shame, triggered by the humiliation they have endured. Many feel that they have betrayed themselves or their friends and family. All such symptoms are normal human responses to abnormal and inhuman treatment. Organizations like Freedom from Torture and the Center for Victims of Torture try to help survivors of torture obtain medical treatment and to gain forensic medical evidence to obtain political asylum in a safe country or to prosecute the perpetrators.
Torture is often difficult to prove, particularly when some time has passed between the event and a medical examination, or when the torturers are immune from prosecution. Many torturers around the world use methods designed to have a maximum psychological impact while leaving only minimal physical traces.
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Medical and Human Rights Organizations worldwide have collaborated to produce the Istanbul Protocol , a document designed to outline common torture methods, consequences of torture, and medico-legal examination techniques. Typically deaths due to torture are shown in an autopsy as being due to "natural causes" like heart attack, inflammation, or embolism due to extreme stress. For survivors, torture often leads to lasting mental and physical health problems. Physical problems can be wide-ranging, e. On 19 August , the American Psychology Association APA voted to bar participation, to intervene to stop, and to report involvement in a wide variety of interrogation techniques as torture, including "using mock executions , simulated drowning, sexual and religious humiliation, stress positions or sleep deprivation", as well as "the exploitation of prisoners' phobias, the use of mind-altering drugs, hooding , forced nakedness, the use of dogs to frighten detainees, exposing prisoners to extreme heat and cold, physical assault and threatening the use of such techniques against a prisoner or a prisoner's family.
However, the APA rejected a stronger resolution that sought to prohibit "all psychologist involvement, either direct or indirect, in any interrogations at U. The APA echoed the Bush administration by condemning isolation, sleep deprivation, and sensory deprivation or over-stimulation only when they are likely to cause lasting harm.
Psychiatric treatment of torture-related medical problems might require a wide range of expertise and often specialized experience. Common treatments are psychotropic medication , e. The aim of rehabilitation is to empower the torture victim to resume as full a life as possible. Rebuilding the life of someone whose dignity has been destroyed takes time and as a result long-term material, medical, psychological and social support is needed. Treatment must be a coordinated effort that covers both physical and psychological aspects.
It is important to take into consideration the patients' needs, problems, expectations, views and cultural references.
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The consequences of torture are likely to be influenced by many internal and external factors. Therefore, rehabilitation needs to employ different treatment approaches, taking into account the victims' individual needs, as well as the cultural, social and political environment. Rehabilitation centres around the world, notably the members of the International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims , commonly offer multi-disciplinary support and counselling, including:. In the case of asylum seekers and refugees, the services may also include assisting in documentation of torture for the asylum decision, language classes and help in finding somewhere to live and work.
In the worst case, torture can affect several generations. The physical and mental after-effects of torture often place great strain on the entire family and society. Children are particularly vulnerable. They often suffer from feelings of guilt or personal responsibility for what has happened.
In some instances, whole societies can be more or less traumatized where torture has been used in a systematic and widespread manner. In general, after years of repression , conflict and war , regular support networks and structures have often been broken or destroyed. Providing psychosocial support and redress to survivors of torture and trauma can help reconstruct broken societies.
They provide support and hope, and act as a symbol of triumph over the manmade terror of torture which can hold back the development of democracy of entire societies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Torture disambiguation. Main article: Five techniques. Further information: History of human rights. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Use of torture since Main article: List of methods of capital punishment. See also: Execution. Main article: International Criminal Court. Extraordinary renditions allegedly have been carried out from these countries.
Detainees have allegedly been transported through these countries. Detainees have allegedly arrived in these countries. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Ethical arguments regarding torture. Main article: Effectiveness of torture for interrogation. Main article: List of methods of torture. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Main article: Torture murder. See also Torture and the United States. But the information thus obtained could be used by the British police and security services as "it would be ludicrous for them to disregard information about a ticking bomb if it had been procured by torture. There is no intermediate status; nobody in enemy hands can be outside the law. We feel that this is a satisfactory solution — not only satisfying to the mind, but also, and above all, satisfactory from the humanitarian point of view.
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Praeger; 1 edition. Association for the Prevention of Torture. If you answered yes to many of these questions, Breaking Intimidation is for you. This book exposes intimidation, breaks its fearful grip and teaches you to release God's gifts and establish his dominion in your life. It's time to break free from its trap and overcome its effects of depression, hopelessness and confusion. Don't let fear hold you back!
Now you can confront intimidation in your life. I highly recommend this book. About The Author. John Bevere is one of the founders of Messenger International which is an organization designed to teach, reach and rescue. He is a minister and best selling author. His organization's goal is to support the local church amd resource leaders regardless of location or language.
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